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2222 Ninth Edition
The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing Rise B. Axelrod University of California, Riverside
Charles R. Cooper University of California, San Diego
Bedford / St. Martin’s Boston 2 New York
For Bedford/St. Martin’s Senior Developmental Editor: Alexis P. Walker Senior Production Editor: Harold Chester Production Supervisor: Jennifer Peterson Marketing Manager: Molly Parke Art Director: Lucy Krikorian Text Design: Jerilyn Bockorick Copy Editor: Denise P. Quirk Photo Research: Naomi Kornhauser Cover Design: Richard DiTomassi Composition: Nesbitt Graphics, Inc. Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley and Sons President: Joan E. Feinberg Editorial Director: Denise B. Wydra Editor in Chief: Karen S. Henry Director of Development: Erica T. Appel Director of Marketing: Karen R. Soeltz Director of Editing, Design, and Production: Marcia Cohen Assistant Director of Editing, Design, and Production: Elise S. Kaiser Managing Editor: Shuli Traub
Library of Congress Control Number: 2009932161 (with Handbook) 2009932166 (without Handbook)
Copyright © 2010, 2008, 2004, 2001 by Bedford/St. Martin’s All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher. Manufactured in the United States of America. 5 4 3 2 1 0 f e d c b a For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 (617-399-4000) ISBN-10: 0-312-53612-7 ISBN-10: 0-312-53613-5
ISBN-13: 978-0-312-53612-1 (with Handbook) ISBN-13: 978-0-312-53613-8 (without Handbook)
Acknowledgments Acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on pages A1-A3, which constitute an extension of the copyright page.
2222 Advisory Board We owe an enormous debt to all the rhetoricians and composition specialists whose theory, research, and pedagogy have informed The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing. We would be adding many pages if we were to name everyone to whom we are indebted. The members of the Advisory Board for the ninth edition, a group of dedicated composition instructors from across the country, have provided us with extensive insights and suggestions for the chapters in Part One and have given us the benefit of their advice on new features. The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing has been greatly enhanced by their contributions. Samantha Andrus-Henry Grand Rapids Community College
Leona Fisher Chaffey College
Melissa Batai Triton College
Diana Grahn Longview Community College
Mary Bishop Holmes Junior College–Ridgeland
Dawn Hubbell-Staeble Bowling Green State University
Jo Ann Buck Guilford Technical Community College
Amy Morris-Jones Baker College of Muskegon
Kevin Cantwell Macon State College
Gray Scott University of California, Riverside
Anne Dvorak Longview Community College
Susan Sebok South Suburban College
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2222 Preface for Instructors When we first wrote The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing, we aimed to demystify writing and authorize students as writers. We wanted to help students learn to commit themselves to writing projects, communicate effectively with chosen readers, and question their own certainties. We also wanted them to understand that knowledge of writing comes both from analyzing writing and from working hard on their own writing. To achieve this aim, we took what we had learned from classical rhetoric and from contemporary composition theory and did our best to make it accessible to students. The response from instructors and students was overwhelmingly positive: The first edition of The Guide, published in 1985, immediately became the most widely adopted text of its kind in the nation. As with every new edition, we began work on this ninth edition with the goal of adapting the best of current composition research and practice to the needs of instructors and students. We listened closely to our Advisory Board and dozens of talented reviewers (students as well as instructors), and we were confirmed in our belief that the essential purpose and approach of The Guide is more relevant than ever: Students need clear guidance and practical strategies to harness their potential as writers — an achievement that will be key to their success in their other college courses, in their jobs, and in the wider world. At the same time, we realized that we needed to reach out to these students, and help them connect with writing, in new ways. Every aspect of the academic landscape has changed since we wrote the first edition. The texts we read and write, the tools we use to find them, the options we have for communicating, the habits of mind we rely on, even the students themselves — all are more varied and complex than in the past, sometimes overwhelmingly so. At the same time, students and instructors alike are increasingly burdened with demands on their time, attention, and energy that emanate from outside the classroom. For all of these reasons, this edition represents a bold reimagining of our original vision. The chapters containing the Guides to Writing have been reengineered to reflect and build on the actual writing processes of students, and the Guides themselves are streamlined and more visual. Throughout the book, we attempt to help students focus on what is important, yet offer multiple options for critical reading and writing. The result of this reimagining is what you hold in your hands: a text that we believe to be more flexible, more engaging, and more pedagogically effective than any previous edition. v
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An Overview of the Book The Guide offers everything you need for the writing course. Part One: Writing Activities
Part One presents nine different genres of writing, all reflecting actual writing assignments that students may encounter both in and out of college. While the chapters can be taught in any order, we have organized Part One to move from writing based on personal experience and reflection, through writing based on research and observation, to writing about controversial issues and problems. Each chapter follows the same organizational plan: s Three brief illustrated scenarios providing examples of how the genre is used
in college courses, in the community, and in the workplace s A brief introduction to the genre s A collaborative activity helping students start working in the genre s An orientation to the genre’s basic features and to questions of purpose and s
s s s
audience specific to the genre A set of readings illustrating the genre accompanied by questions and prompts designed to help students explore connections to their culture and experience and to analyze the basic features and writing strategies A “Beyond the Traditional Essay” section discussing examples of the genre drawn from unexpected contexts — advertising, blogs, museums, even public parks A Guide to Writing, tailored to the genre, that helps students refine their own writing processes, with activities for invention and research, easy-reference guides for drafting and revision, a Critical Reading Guide for peer review, strategies for integrating sources, and more Editing and proofreading guidelines, based on our nationwide study of errors in first-year college students’ writing, to help students check for one or two sentence-level problems likely to occur in a given genre A section exploring how writers think about document design, expanding on one of the scenarios presented at the beginning of the chapter A look at one student writer at work, focusing on one or more aspects of the writing process of a student whose essay is featured in the chapter Critical thinking activities designed to help students reflect on what they learned and consider the social dimensions of the genre taught in the chapter
Part Two: Critical Thinking Strategies
Part Two consists of two chapters that present practical heuristics for invention and reading. Chapter 11, “A Catalog of Invention Strategies,” covers clustering, looping, dramatizing, and questioning, among other strategies, while Chapter 12, “A Catalog of Reading Strategies,” includes annotating, summarizing, exploring the significance of figurative language, and evaluating the logic of an argument.
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Part Three: Writing Strategies
Part Three looks at a wide range of writers’ strategies: paragraphing and coherence; logic and reasoning; and the familiar methods of presenting information, such as narrating, defining, and classifying. In the ninth edition of The Guide, a new Chapter 20 provides students with criteria for analyzing visuals and illustrates them with several lengthy sample analyses and one full-length, documented student paper. Part Three concludes with a heavily illustrated chapter on document design, which provides principles to guide students in constructing a wide range of documents, along with examples of some of the most common kinds of documents they’ll create in school, at work, and in their everyday lives. Examples and exercises in Part Three have been drawn from a wide range of contemporary publications as well as reading selections appearing in Part One. The extensive cross-referencing between Parts One and Three allows instructors to teach writing strategies as students work on full essays. Part Four: Research Strategies
Part Four discusses field as well as library and Internet research and includes thorough, up-to-date guidelines for using and documenting sources, with detailed examples of the 2009 Modern Language Association (MLA) and 2010 American Psychological Association (APA) documentation styles. An annotated sample student research paper models ways students can integrate citations into their own work in accordance with the rules for MLA documentation. The final chapter in Part Four, new to the ninth edition of The Guide, offers detailed guidelines for creating annotated bibliographies and literature reviews. Part Five: Writing for Assessment
Part Five covers essay examinations, showing students how to analyze different kinds of exam questions and offering strategies for writing answers. It also addresses portfolios, helping students select, assemble, and present a representative sample of their writing. Part Six: Writing and Speaking to Wider Audiences
Part Six includes chapters on oral presentations, collaborative learning, and service learning, offering advice to help students work together on writing projects and to write in and for their communities. The Handbook
The Handbook offers a complete reference guide to grammar, word choice, punctuation, mechanics, common ESL problems, sentence structure, and usage. We have designed the Handbook so that students will find the answers they need quickly, and we have provided student examples from our nationwide study so that students will see errors similar to the ones in their own essays. In addition to the section on ESL problems, boxes throughout the rest of the Handbook offer specific support for ESL students.
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Proven Features While this edition of The Guide represents a bold reimagining of the way students work, it has retained the three central features that have made it a best-seller since its first edition: the detailed, practical guides to writing in different genres; the systematic integration of reading and writing; and continuing attention to changes in composition pedagogy. Practical Guides to Writing
Each chapter in Part One offers practical, flexible guides that help students with different aspects of writing, such as invention or revision, as they write. Commonsensical and easy to follow, these writing guides teach students to assess a rhetorical situation, identify the kinds of information they will need, ask probing questions and find answers, and organize writing to achieve a particular purpose for chosen readers. In the ninth edition, we’ve done even more to make these guides effective and easy to use, by streamlining them, by adding easy reference charts and tables, and by offering students multiple entry points into the composing process. Systematic Integration of Reading and Writing
Each chapter in Part One introduces a single genre of writing, which students are led to consider both as readers and as writers. Chapters begin with an essay written in the genre by a student writer using The Guide; these essays are annotated with questions designed to encourage students to discover the ways in which the essay exemplifies that genre’s basic features. Each of three professional readings in the chapter is accompanied by carefully focused apparatus to guide purposeful, productive rereading. First is a response activity, Making Connections, which relates a central theme of the reading to students’ own lives and cultural knowledge. The section following, Analyzing Writing Strategies, asks students to examine how the writer makes use of the basic features and strategies typical of the genre. Essays that include visuals are followed by an Analyzing Visuals section, which asks students to write about the way(s) in which photos, graphs, and other visual elements enhance the text. Finally, in Considering Topics for Your Own Essay, students approach the most important decision they have to make with a genre-centered assignment: choosing a workable topic that inspires their commitment to weeks of thinking and writing. Continuing Attention to Changes in Composition
With each new edition, we have responded to new thinking and new issues in the field of composition and turned current theory and research into practical classroom activities — with a minimum of jargon. As a result, in every new edition The Guide incorporated new material that contributed to its continued effectiveness, including more on appropriate methods of argument, research, and working with
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sources; attention to new technologies for writing and researching; activities that promote group discussion and inquiry and encourage students to reflect on what they have learned; and material on document design, oral presentations, and writing in the community.
Changes in the Ninth Edition In this edition, we have taken instructors’ advice and revised the text to make it an even more effective teaching tool. s Streamlined and redesigned Part One chapters provide more visual cues for
students who learn visually, more “easy-reference” features for students who need help navigating a lengthy text, and more “ways in” to each assignment for students whose writing processes don’t conform to an imaginary norm. s The Basic Features of each chapter’s genre of writing are now introduced at the start of the chapter, to lay the groundwork for students’ understanding of the genre and to prepare them for their work with that chapter’s readings. s A new color-coding system calls out the Basic Features in the annotated student essay, the post-reading apparatus, and throughout the Guide to Writing, helping students see the connections among the chapter’s various parts and more easily grasp what makes a successful example of a given genre. s New “Beyond the Traditional Essay” sections illustrate and discuss examples of that chapter’s genre of writing drawn from advertising, blogs, museums — even public parks. s New easy-reference charts in each Guide to Writing — “Starting Points” and “Troubleshooting Your Draft” — help students self-assess and efficiently find the advice and models they need for overcoming individual writing challenges. s Newly designed Invention activities highlight different paths through the processes of generating and shaping material. s Chapter 5, newly revised as “Finding Common Ground,” now teaches students how to analyze opposing positions and find “common ground” between them — a key step in analyzing and synthesizing sources and in constructing academic as well as civic arguments. s New material brings the book up-to-date and teaches students what they’ll need to succeed at academic writing. s To help students understand and evaluate the visual data that increasingly dominate our culture, we have added a new Chapter 20, “Analyzing Visuals,” which provides clear guidance on how to critically read and write about photos, ads, works of art, and other image-based texts. The chapter also offers a multi-stage model of a student’s analysis of a photo by Gordon Parks, as well as exercises in visual analysis that students can do in class or on their own.
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s To help them cope with information overload while doing research, we
have added a new Chapter 25, “Annotated Bibliographies and Literature Reviews,” which offers detailed guidance on these important elements of the research process. s To help them make useful connections between their previous writing experiences and the writing they will do in college, Chapter 1 now focuses on the literacy narrative, encouraging students to reflect on their own literacy experiences in preparation for the reading and writing challenges they’ll encounter in the course. s Fifteen new readings, with at least one new reading in every Writing Assignment chapter, introduce compelling topics, multicultural perspectives, and fresh voices, including Trey Ellis on a family member’s battle with AIDS, Saira Shah on finding her roots in Afghanistan, and Amy Goldwasser on what kids learn online — and why it matters.
Additional Resources You Get More Help with The St. Martin’s Guide The benefits of using The St. Martin’s Guide don’t stop with the print text. Online, in print, and in digital format, you’ll find both free and affordable premium resources to help students get even more out of the book and your course. You’ll also find course management solutions and convenient instructor resources, such as sample syllabi, suggested classroom activities, and even a nationwide community of teachers. To learn more about or order any of the products below, contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative, e-mail sales support ([emailprotected]), or visit the Web site at bedfordstmartins .com/theguide/catalog.
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students to free and open resources, allow them to choose an affordable e-book option, or upgrade to an expanding collection of innovative digital content — all in one place. s Free and open resources for The St. Martin’s Guide provide students with
easy-to-access book-specific materials, exercises, and downloadable content, including electronic versions of the Critical Reading Guides, Starting Points and Troubleshooting Your Draft charts; tutorials for the sentence strategies in the Part One chapters; and additional essays on topics of contemporary debate for use with Chapter 5, “Finding Common Ground.” Additional free resources include Research and Documentation Online by Diana Hacker, with clear advice on how to integrate outside material into a
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paper, how to cite sources correctly, and how to format the paper in MLA, APA, Chicago, or CSE style; and Exercise Central, a database of over 9,000 editing exercises designed to help identify students’ strengths and weaknesses, recommend personalized study plans, and provide tutorials for common writing problems. s The St. Martin’s Guide e-Book and enhanced Web site let students do more and pay less. This flexible e-book allows users to highlight important sections, insert their own sticky notes, and customize content; the enhanced Web site includes Marriage 101 and Other Student Essays, a collection of 32 essays inspired by The Guide, and a peer-review lesson module and online roleplaying game. The St. Martin’s Guide e-Book and access to the enhanced Web site can be packaged free with the print book or purchased separately at the Student Center for less than the price of the print book. An activation code is required. s Re:Writing Plus, now with VideoCentral, gathers all of Bedford/St. Martin’s premium digital content for composition into one online collection. It includes hundreds of model documents and VideoCentral, with over 50 brief videos for the writing classroom. Re:Writing Plus can be purchased separately at the Student Center or packaged with the print book at a significant discount. An activation code is required. Sticks and Stones and Other Student Essays, Seventh Edition. Available for
packaging free with new copies of The Guide, Sticks and Stones is a collection of essays written by students across the nation using earlier editions of The Guide. Each essay is accompanied by a headnote that spotlights some of the ways the writer uses the genre successfully, invites students to notice other achievements, and supplies context where necessary. Who Are We? Readings in Identity and Community and Work and Career.
Available for packaging free with new copies of The Guide, Who Are We? contains selections that expand on themes foregrounded in The Guide. Full of ideas for classroom discussion and writing, the readings offer students additional perspectives and thought-provoking analysis. i·series on CD-ROM. Free when packaged with new copies of The St. Martin’s Guide, the i·series includes multimedia tutorials in a flexible CD-ROM format — because there are things you can’t do in a book: s ix visual exercises help students visualize and put into practice key rhetorical
and visual concepts. s i·claim visualizing argument offers a new way to see argument — with 6 tutorials, an illustrated glossary, and over 70 multimedia arguments. s i·cite visualizing sources brings research to life through an animated introduction, four tutorials, and hands-on source practice.
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Course Management CompClass for The St. Martin’s Guide (yourcompclass.com). An easy-to-use online course space designed for composition students and instructors, CompClass for The St. Martin’s Guide comes preloaded with the St. Martin’s Guide e-Book as well as other Bedford/St. Martin’s premium digital content, including VideoCentral. Powerful assignment and assessment tools make it easier to keep track of your students’ progress. CompClass for The St. Martin’s Guide can be purchased separately at yourcompclass.com or packaged with the print book at a significant discount. An activation code is required. Content cartridges for WebCT, Angel, and other course management systems.
Our content cartridges for course management systems — Blackboard, WebCT, Angel, and Desire2Learn — make it simple for instructors using this online learning architecture to build a course around The Guide. The content is drawn from the Web site and includes activities, models, reference materials, and the Exercise Central gradebook.
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Instructor Resources You have a lot to do in your course. Bedford/St. Martin’s wants to make it easy for you to find the support you need — and to get it quickly. Instructor’s Resource Manual (ISBN-10: 0-312-58260-9/ISBN-13: 978-0-31258260-9 (print); also available for download at bedfordstmartins.com/theguide). The Instructor’s Resource Manual includes helpful advice for new instructors, guidelines on common teaching practices such as assigning journals and setting up group activities, guidelines on responding to and evaluating student writing, course plans, detailed chapter plans, an annotated bibliography in composition and rhetoric, and a selection of background readings. Additional Resources for Teaching with The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing, available for download at bedfordstmartins.com/theguide, supports classroom instruction with PowerPoint presentations offering lists of important features for each genre, critical reading guides, collaborative activities, and checklists, all adapted from the text. It also provides more than fifty exercises designed to accompany the Handbook section of the hardcover edition of The Guide. The Elements of Teaching Writing (A Resource for Instructors in All Disciplines)
(ISBN-10: 0-312-40683-5/ISBN-13: 978-0-312-40683-7). Written by Katherine Gottschalk and Keith Hjortshoj, The Elements of Teaching Writing provides timesaving strategies and practical guidance in a brief reference form. Drawing on their extensive experience training instructors in all disciplines to incorporate writing into their courses, Gottschalk and Hjortshoj offer reliable advice, accommodating a wide range of teaching styles and class sizes, about how to design effective writing assignments and how to respond to and evaluate student writing in any course. Teaching Central (bedfordstmartins.com/teachingcentral). Designed for the convenience of instructors, this rich Web site lists and describes Bedford/St. Martin’s acclaimed print series of free professional sourcebooks, background readings, and bibliographies for teachers. In addition, Teaching Central offers a host of free online resources, including s Bits, a blog that collects creative ideas for teaching composition from a com-
munity of teachers, scholars, authors, and editors. Instructors are free to take, use, adapt, and pass the ideas around, in addition to sharing new suggestions. s Just-in-Time Teaching and Adjunct Central — downloadable syllabi, hand-
outs, exercises, activities, assignments, teaching tips, and more, organized by resource type and by topic s Take 20 — a 60-minute film for teachers, by teachers, in which 22 writing
teachers answer 20 questions on current practices and emerging ideas in composition
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Acknowledgments We owe an enormous debt to all the rhetoricians and composition specialists whose theory, research, and pedagogy have informed The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing. We would be adding many pages to an already long book if we were to name everyone to whom we are indebted; suffice it to say that we have been eclectic in our borrowing. We must also acknowledge immeasurable lessons learned from all the writers, professional and student alike, whose work we analyzed and whose writing we used in this and earlier editions. So many instructors and students have contributed ideas and criticism over the years. The members of the advisory board for the ninth edition, a group of dedicated composition instructors from across the country, have provided us with extensive insights and suggestions on the eighth edition and have given us the benefit of their advice on new readings and other new features for the ninth. For their many contributions, we would like to thank Samantha Andrus-Henry, Grand Rapids Community College; Melissa Batai, Triton College; Mary Bishop, Holmes Junior College–Ridgeland; Jo Ann Buck, Guilford Technical Community College; Kevin Cantwell, Macon State College; Anne Dvorak, Longview Community College; Leona Fisher, Chaffey College; Diana Grahn, Longview Community College; Dawn Hubbell-Staeble, Bowling Green State University; Amy Morris-Jones, Baker College of Muskegon; Gray Scott, University of California, Riverside; and Susan Sebok, South Suburban College. Many other instructors have also helped us improve the book. For responding to detailed questionnaires about the eighth edition, we thank Diana Agy, Jackson Community College; James Allen, College of DuPage; Eileen Baland, Texas Baptist University; Sydney Bartman, Mt. San Antonio College; Elisabeth Beccue, Erie Community College; Maria J. Cahill, Edison College; Lenny Cavallaro, Northern Essex Community College; Chandra Speight Cerutti, East Carolina University; Connie Chismar, Georgian Court University; Marilyn Clark, Xavier University; Lori Rios Doddy, Texas Woman’s University; Deborah Kay Ferrell, Finger Lakes Community College; April Gentry, Savannah State University; Diane Halm, Niagara University; Tammy Harosky, Virginia Highlands Community College; Anne Helms, Alamance Community College; Teresa Henning, Southwest Minnesota State University; Rick Jones, South Suburban College; Cristina Karmas, Graceland University; Glenda Lowery, Rappanannock Community College, Warsaw Campus; Rachel Jo Mack, Ball State University; Linda McHenry, Fort Hays State University; Jim McKeown, McLennan Community College; Michelle Metzner, Wright State University; Lisa Wiley Moslow, Erie Community College North Campus; Caroline Nobile, Edinboro University of Pennsylvania; Gordon Petry, Bradley University; Richard W. Porter, Cedarville University; Pamela J. Rader, Georgian Court University; Kim Salrin, Bradley University; Wanda Synstelien, Southwest Minnesota State University; Ruthe Thompson, Southwest Minnesota State University; Janice M. Vierk, Metropolitan Community College; Betsey Whited, Emporia State University; John M. Ziebell, College of Southern Nevada; and Susan Zolliker, Palomar College.
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For this new edition of The Guide, we also gratefully acknowledge the special contributions of the following: Paul Tayyar, who drafted the new “Analyzing Visuals” chapter; Gray Scott, who drafted the new “Annotated Bibliographies and Literature Reviews” chapter; and Jill Markgraf, Judith Van Noate, Debbi Renfrow, Jaena Hollingsworth, and Beth Downs, who provided expert advice on the revised coverage of library and Internet research. We want especially to thank the many instructors at the University of California, Riverside, who offered advice and class tested new material, including Stephanie Kay, Leona Fisher, Gray Scott, Elizabeth Spies, Elissa Weeks, Rob d’Annibale, Kimberly Turner, Amanda Uvalle, Joshua Fenton, Benedict Jones, and Sandra Baringer. Finally, we are especially grateful to the student authors for allowing us to use their work in Sticks and Stones, Marriage 101, and The Guide. We want to thank many people at Bedford/St. Martin’s, especially Senior Editor Alexis Walker, whose wisdom, skill, and tireless enthusiasm made this edition possible, and our production team of Harold Chester, Shuli Traub, and Jenny Peterson. Denise Quirk made many valuable contributions to this revision with her careful copyediting, as did Diana Puglisi George with her meticulous proofreading. Cecilia Seiter managed and edited all of the most important ancillaries to the book: the Instructor’s Resource Manual, Sticks and Stones, Marriage 101, and the rest of the Guide Web site. Without the help of Dan Schwartz, the new media supplements to The Guide would not have been possible. Thanks also to the immensely talented design team — book designer Jerilyn Bockorick as well as Bedford/St. Martin’s art directors Anna Palchik and Lucy Krikorian — for making the ninth edition so attractive and usable. Our gratitude also goes to Sandy Schechter and Warren Drabek for their hard work clearing permissions, and Martha Friedman and Naomi Kornhauser for imaginative photo research. We wish finally to express our heartfelt appreciation to Nancy Perry for helping us to launch The Guide successfully so many years ago and continuing to stand by us. Over the years, Nancy has generously and wisely advised us on everything from planning new editions to copyediting manuscript, and now she is helping us develop the new customized publication of The Guide. We also want to thank Erica Appel, director of development, and Karen Henry, editor-in-chief, who offered valued advice at many critical stages in the process. Thanks as well to Joan Feinberg and Denise Wydra for their adroit leadership of Bedford/St. Martin’s, and to marketing director Karen Soeltz and marketing manager Molly Parke — along with the extraordinarily talented and hardworking sales staff — for their tireless efforts on behalf of The Guide.
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Features of The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing, Ninth Edition, Correlated to the WPA Outcomes Statement
Desired Student Outcomes
Relevant Features of The St. Martin’s Guide
Rhetorical Knowledge Focus on a purpose
Each writing assignment chapter in Part One offers extensive discussion of the purpose(s) for the genre of writing covered in that chapter.
Respond to the needs of different audiences
Each chapter in Part One discusses the need to consider one’s audience for the particular genre covered in that chapter. In Chapters 6–10, which cover argument, there is also extensive discussion of the need to anticipate opposing positions and readers’ objections to the writer’s thesis.
Respond appropriately to different kinds of rhetorical situations
Each chapter in Part One gives detailed advice on responding to a particular rhetorical situation, from remembering an event (Chapter 2) to analyzing stories (Chapter 10).
Use conventions of format and structure appropriate to the rhetorical situation
Each chapter in Part One points out features of effectively structured writing, and the Guides to Writing help students systematically develop their own effective structures. Document design is covered in two sections in each of these chapters, as well as in a dedicated Chapter 21, “Designing Documents.”
Adopt appropriate voice, tone, and level of formality
Many of the Sentence Strategies sections in each chapter in Part One deal with these issues. Also, see purpose and audience coverage mentioned previously.
Understand how genres shape reading and writing
Each chapter in Part One offers student and professional readings accompanied by annotations, questions, and commentary that draw students’ attention to the key features of the genre and stimulate ideas for writing. Each chapter’s Guide to Writing offers detailed, step-by-step advice for writing in the genre and for offering constructive peer criticism. In addition, “In College Courses,” “In the Community,” and “In the Workplace” sections that open each Part One chapter, as well as “Beyond the Traditional Essay” sections later in the chapter, show how the various genres are used outside the composition course.
Write in several genres
The Guides to Writing in each of the nine chapters in Part One offer specific advice on writing to remember an event; to profile a person, activity, or place; to explain a concept; to analyze opposing positions and find common ground; to argue a position; to propose a solution; to justify an evaluation; to speculate about causes; and to analyze literature. In addition, Chapters 22–25 cover research strategies that many students will use while writing in the genres covered in Part One.
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Desired Student Outcomes
Relevant Features of The St. Martin’s Guide
Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing Use writing and reading for inquiry, learning, thinking, and communicating
Each Writing Assignment chapter in Part One emphasizes the connection between reading and writing in a particular genre: Each chapter begins with a group of readings whose apparatus introduces students to thinking about the features of the genre; then a Guide to Writing leads them through the process of applying these features to an essay of their own. Chapter 11, “A Catalog of Invention Strategies,” and Chapter 12, “A Catalog of Reading Strategies” prompt students to engage actively in invention and reading. Other Part Two chapters include coverage of specific invention, reading, and writing strategies useful in a variety of genres.
Understand a writing assignment as a series of tasks, including finding, evaluating, analyzing, and synthesizing appropriate primary and secondary sources
The Guides to Writing in each chapter in Part One break writing assignments down into doable focused thinking and writing activities that engage students in the recursive process of invention and research to find, analyze, and synthesize information and ideas. “Working with Sources” sections teach specific strategies of evaluating and integrating source material. Chapter 12, “A Catalog of Reading Strategies,” covers various strategies useful in working with sources, including annotating, summarizing, and synthesizing. Chapter 24, “Using Sources,” offers detailed coverage of finding, evaluating, using, and acknowledging primary and secondary sources, while Chapter 25, “Annotated Bibliographies and Literature Reviews,” helps students master these essential research-based tasks.
Integrate their own ideas with those of others
Chapter 24, “Using Sources,” offers detailed advice on how to integrate and introduce quotations, how to cite paraphrases and summaries so as to distinguish them from the writer’s own ideas, and how to avoid plagiarism. “Sentence Strategy” and “Working with Sources” in several Part One chapters offer additional support.
Understand the relationships among language, knowledge, and power
“Making Connections,” a recurring section in the apparatus following the professional readings in Part One chapters, encourages students to put what they’ve read in the context of the world they live in. These preliminary reflections come into play in the Guides to Writing, where students are asked to draw on their experiences in college, community, and career in order to begin writing. “Thinking Critically about What You Have Learned” sections that conclude Part One chapters ask students to reconsider what they have learned, often in a social/political context.
Processes Be aware that it usually takes multiple drafts to create and complete a successful text
The need for a critical reading of a draft and for revision is emphasized in Chapter 1 as well as in the Guides to Writing in each chapter of Part One. Case studies of particular students’ writing processes are offered in “Writer at Work” sections in each Part One chapter. (continued )
Desired Student Outcomes
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Relevant Features of The St. Martin’s Guide
Processes (continued) Develop flexible strategies for generating ideas, revising, editing, and proofreading
The Guides to Writing in each Part One chapter offer genre-specific coverage of invention and research, getting a critical reading of a draft, revising, editing, and proofreading. Also in each Part One chapter, “Ways In” invention activities encourage students to start from their strengths, and “Starting Points” and “Troubleshooting Your Draft” charts offer specific, targeted advice for students with different challenges. A dedicated Chapter 11, “A Catalog of Invention Strategies,” offers numerous helpful suggestions for idea generation.
Understand writing as an open process that permits writers to use later invention and rethinking to revise their work
The Guides to Writing in each Part One chapter offer extensive, genre-specific advice on rethinking and revising at multiple stages. “Ways In” activities, “Starting Points” charts, and “Troubleshooting Your Draft” charts in Part One chapters encourage students to discover, review, and revise their own process(es) of writing.
Understand the collaborative and social aspects of writing processes
Each chapter in Part One includes several opportunities for and guides to collaboration: “Practice” activities at the beginning of the chapter, “Making Connections” activities after the readings, and, in the Guides to Writing, “Testing Your Choice” activities and the Critical Reading Guide.
Learn to critique their own and others’ works
The Critical Reading Guide and Revising sections in the Guides to Writing in each Part One chapter offer students specific advice on constructively criticizing — and praising — their own work and the work of their classmates. Peer review is also covered in depth in Chapter 29, “Working with Others.”
Learn to balance the advantages of relying on others with the responsibility of doing their part
This goal is implicit in several collaborative activities: “Practice” activities at the beginning of the chapter, “Making Connections” activities after the readings, and, in the Guides to Writing, “Testing Your Choice” activities and the Critical Reading Guide. Group work is also covered in depth in Chapter 29, “Working with Others.”
Use a variety of technologies to address a range of audiences
Each Guide to Writing in Part One chapters includes advice on using the Web for various stages of the writing process, as well as “sidebars” providing information and advice about grammar- and spell-checkers and software-based commenting tools. See also Chapter 23, “Library and Internet Research,” for extensive coverage of finding, evaluating, and using print and electronic resources and of responsibly using the Internet, e-mail, and online communities for research, and Chapter 21, “Designing Documents,” which offers advice on creating visuals on a computer or downloading them from the Web. Finally, The Guide’s electronic ancillaries include a robust companion Web site and an e-Book.
PREFAC E FOR IN STRU C TORS
Desired Student Outcomes
Relevant Features of The St. Martin’s Guide
Knowledge of Conventions Learn common formats for different kinds of texts
Document design is covered in a dedicated Chapter 21 as well as in two sections in each of the Writing Assignment chapters in Part One. Examples of specific formats for a range of texts appear on pp. 787–94 (research paper); p. 704 (memo); p. 705 (business letter); p. 706 (e-mail); p. 708 (résumé); p. 710 (job application letter); pp. 712–13 (lab report); and pp. 696–702 (table, diagrams, graphs, charts, map, and other figures).
Develop knowledge of genre conventions ranging from structure and paragraphing to tone and mechanics
Each chapter in Part One presents several basic features of a specific genre, which are introduced up front and then consistently reinforced throughout the chapter. Genre-specific issues of structure, paragraphing, tone, and mechanics are also addressed in the “Sentence Strategies” and “Editing and Proofreading” sections of each Guide to Writing.
Practice appropriate means of documenting their work
Chapter 24, “Using Sources,” offers detailed advice on how to integrate and introduce quotations, how to cite paraphrases and summaries so as to distinguish them from the writer’s own ideas, and how to avoid plagiarism. This chapter also offers coverage of MLA and APA documentation in addition to an annotated sample student research paper. Chapter 20, “Analyzing Visuals,” also offers a complete student paper with MLA documentation. In addition, “Working with Sources” sections in each Guide to Writing in the Part One chapters help students with the details of using and appropriately documenting sources by providing genre-specific examples of what (and what not) to do.
Control such surface features as syntax, grammar, punctuation, and spelling
Genre-specific editing and proofreading advice is given in two sections in each Guide to Writing in the Part One chapters: “Sentence Strategies” and “Editing and Proofreading.” The hardcover version of The Guide also includes a concise yet remarkably comprehensive handbook with coverage of syntax, grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
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2222 Preface for Students: How to Use The St. Martin’s Guide We have written this book with you, the student reading and using it, always in the forefront of our minds. Although it is a long book that covers many different topics, at its heart is a simple message: The best way to become a good writer is to study examples of good writing, then to apply what you have learned from those examples to your own work. Accordingly, we have provided numerous carefully selected examples of the kinds of writing you are likely to do both in and out of college, and we have accompanied them with detailed advice on writing your own essays. In this Preface, we explain how the various parts of the book work together to achieve this goal.
The Organization of the Book Following Chapter 1 — an introduction to writing that gives general advice about how to approach different parts of a writing assignment — The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing is divided into six major parts: Part One: Writing Activities (Chapters 2–10) Part Two: Critical Thinking Strategies (Chapters 11 and 12) Part Three: Writing Strategies (Chapters 13–21) Part Four: Research Strategies (Chapters 22–25) Part Five: Writing for Assessment (Chapters 26 and 27) Part Six: Writing and Speaking to Wider Audiences (Chapters 28–30) This hardcover version of the book also includes a Handbook that you can refer to for help with grammar, punctuation, word choice, common ESL problems, and similar issues.
The Part One Chapters For now, to understand how to use the book effectively to improve your writing, you first need to know that the most important part — the part that all of the rest depends on — is Part One, Chapters 2 through 10. Each of these chapters is organized to teach you about one important specific genre, or type of writing: s autobiography s profile of a person, activity, or place
s s s s s s s
PREFACE FO R ST U D EN TS
explanation of a concept analysis of opposing positions seeking common ground argument supporting your position proposal to solve a problem evaluation analysis of possible causes analysis of a short story
Each Part One chapter follows essentially the same structure, beginning with three scenarios that provide examples of how that kind of writing could be used in a college course, in a workplace, and in a community setting such as a volunteer program or civic organization.
2222 Remembering an Event
IN COLLEGE COURSES In a linguistics course, students are assigned a paper in which they are to discuss published research in the context of their own experience. The class had recently read Deborah Tannen’s Gender and Discourse, in which Tannen discusses differences in how men and women talk about problems: according to Tannen, women tend to spend a lot of time talking about the problem and their feelings about it, while men typically cut short the analysis of the problem and focus on solutions. One student decides to write about Tannen’s findings in light of a conversation she recently had
Short chapter-opening scenarios provide examples of how the kind of writing covered in the chapter is used in other college courses, in your job, and in your community.
Next come a brief introduction to the genre, a collaborative activity to get you thinking about the genre, and an introduction to the genre’s basic features, each of which is assigned a specific color.
PREFAC E FOR STU D EN TS
Reading Remembered Event Essays Basic Features
As you read remembered event essays in this chapter, you will see how different authors incorporate the basic features of the genre.
2 A Well-Told Story Read first to enjoy the story. Remembered event essays are autobiographical stories that recount an important event in the writer’s life; the best ones are first and foremost a pleasure to read. A well-told story s arouses curiosity and suspense by structuring the narrative around conflict,
building to a climax, and leading to a change or discovery of some kind; s is set in a specific time and place, often using dialogue to heighten immediacy
The genre’s basic features are introduced toward the beginning of the chapter, so you know what to look for in the readings. Each basic feature is assigned a color, which is used whenever that basic feature is discussed later in the chapter.
Next, you’ll find a series of readings, essays that will help you see how writers deploy the basic features of the genre for different purposes and audiences. The first reading in each chapter is always one written by a first-year college student who was using The St. Martin’s Guide. These readings include color coding that highlights the writer’s use of the basic features of the genre, as well as marginal questions that ask you to analyze the essay and also call your attention to particular writing strategies — such as quoting sources, using humor, providing definitions, and giving examples — that the writer used.
As you read, look for places where Brandt lets us know how she felt at the time the event occurred. Also consider the questions in the margin. Your instructor may ask you to post your answers or bring them to class.
222 Calling Home
s 7ELL TOLD STORY s 6IVID DESCRIPTION
As we all piled into the car, I knew it was going to be a fabulous day. My grand-
mother was visiting for the holidays; and she and I, along with my older brother and sister, Louis and Susan, were setting off for a day of last-minute Christmas shopping. On the way to the mall, we sang Christmas carols, chattered, and laughed. With
(OW DOES "RANDT SET THE STAGE FOR HER STORY (OW DOES SHE TRY TO GET YOU TO IDENTIFY WITH HER
Christmas only two days away, we were caught up with holiday spirit. I felt light-headed and full of joy. I loved shopping — especially at Christmas. 2
The shopping center was swarming with frantic last-minute shoppers like ourselves. We went first to the General Store, my favorite. It carried mostly knickknacks and other useless items which nobody needs but buys anyway. I was thirteen years old at the time, and things like buttons and calendars and posters would catch my fancy. This day was no different. The object of my desire was a 75-cent Snoopy button.
7HAT ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTIVE DE TAIL WOULD HELP YOU VISUALIZE THE PLACE AND PEOPLE 7HAT IS YOUR FIRST IMPRESSION OF "RANDT 7HAT IS THE AUTHORS AT TITUDE TOWARD HER YOUNGER SELF
Color-coded highlighting in the chapter’s first essay calls attention to the student writer’s use of the basic features of the genre; questions in the margin ask you to analyze and reflect on the writer’s use of various strategies.
PREFACE FO R S TU D EN TS
Usually, the remaining readings in the chapter are by professional writers. Each of these additional essays is accompanied by the following groups of questions and activities to help you learn how essays in that genre work: Making Connections invites you to explore an issue raised by the reading that is related to your own experience and often to broader social or cultural issues. Analyzing Writing Strategies helps you examine closely some specific strategies the writer used. The questions in this section are organized according to the basic features of the genre, to help you keep track of different aspects of the essay’s construction. Following essays that include visuals, an Analyzing Visuals section asks you to examine what graphics, photographs, and the like contribute to the written text. Considering Topics for Your Own Essay suggests subjects that you might write about in your own essay. Following the readings, each assignment chapter also includes the following sections: s a “Beyond the Traditional Essay” section that provides examples of that chap-
ter’s genre of writing drawn from unexpected contexts — advertising, blogs, museums, even public parks s a Guide to Writing that will help you write an effective essay in the genre for your particular audience and purpose. The Guides to Writing, the most important parts of the entire book, will be explained fully in the next section. s a Writer at Work narrative showing key elements of the writing process of one student whose essay appears in the chapter s a concluding section titled Thinking Critically about What You Have Learned, which invites you to reflect on the work you did for that chapter and to consider some of its wider social and cultural implications.
Beyond the Traditional Essay: Remembering an Event Our culture commemorates events in many ways that are likely familiar to you. Physical memorials such as statues, plaques, monuments, and buildings are traditional means of ensuring that important events remain in our collective memory: Relatively recent examples include the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., and the planned commemorative complex at the site of the 9/11 World Trade Center attack in New York City. Though such memorials function primarily visually, rather than textually, they can also be seen to exhibit the basic features we’ve discussed in essays remembering an event. The Vietnam memorial is a dramatic, V-shaped black granite wall partly embedded in the earth, which reflects the images of visitors reading the names of the dead and missing inscribed there; the names are presented in chronological order, telling the story of the con-
“Beyond the Traditional Essay” sections provide examples of that chapter’s genre of writing drawn from unexpected contexts — advertising, blogs, museums, even public parks.
PREFAC E FOR STU D EN TS
The Guides to Writing Just as the Part One assignment chapters are the heart of the book, the heart of each assignment chapter is the Guide to Writing. Writing an essay does not usually proceed in a smooth, predictable sequence — often, for example, a writer working on a draft will go back to what is usually an earlier step, such as invention and research, or jump ahead to what is usually a later one, such as editing and proofreading. But to make our help with the process more understandable and manageable, we have divided each Guide to Writing into the same elements that appear in the same order: s s s s s s
the Writing Assignment; Invention and Research; Planning and Drafting; a Critical Reading Guide; Revising; and Editing and Proofreading.
The Writing Assignment. Each Guide to Writing begins with an assignment that
defines the general purpose and basic features of the genre you have been studying in the chapter. Starting Points chart. Each Guide to Writing opens with an easy-reference Starting
Points chart, which is designed to help you efficiently find the advice you need for getting past writer’s block and other early-stage difficulties.
Starting Points: Explaining a Concept 2222 Basic Features
Choosing a Concept
A Focused Explanation
Where to Look
(OW DO ) COME UP WITH A CONCEPT TO WRITE ABOUT
s #ONSIDERING 4OPICS FOR 9OUR /WN %SSAY PP n s #HOOSING A #ONCEPT TO 7RITE !BOUT PP n s 4ESTING 9OUR #HOICE PP n
7HATS MY PURPOSE IN WRITING (OW CAN ) INTEREST MY AUDIENCE
s 2EADING #ONCEPT %XPLANATIONS 0URPOSE AND !UDIENCE P s $EFINING 9OUR 0URPOSE FOR 9OUR 2EADERS P s 2EFINING 9OUR 0URPOSE AND 3ETTING 'OALS #LARIFYING 9OUR 0URPOSE AND !UDIENCE P
(OW CAN ) DECIDE ON A FOCUS FOR MY CONCEPT
s 2EADING #ONCEPT %XPLANATIONS "ASIC &EATURES